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Table 4. Major mouse strains, their features, chah applications. This is also the first mouse strain whose genome was fully sequenced insoon after the human genome. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium IMPC [ 22 ], launched in September,aims to catalog the function of every mouse gene in this strain through knockout technologies. First, they frequently serve as physiological or pathological models for in vivo studies. Second, they are nude applied to build transgenic mouse models, such as those with the photoactivatable green fluorescent protein PA-GFP [ 27 nue.

Many such transgenic lines are then used for the in vivo studies just mentioned.

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It is important to know with which substrain you are working because important genetic and phenotypic variation exists among them [ 29 ]. The substrains have phenotypic differences [ 34jacksob ], Nude chat em Jackson sp some of the underlying genetic variations have been identified [ ]. The hybrid mice are heterozygous genetically and tend to serve as a background for some deleterious mutations.

Jjackson the advantage of using a "standard" strain in research is apparent, interesting issues have been raised about the drawbacks of such a practice, see The Trouble With Black Chopra S et al backcrossed Vav1cre and CD11ccre mice with other floxed chats to generate conditional knockouts in leukocytes or dendritic cells, respectively [ 50 ].

This has included histone modifications during human parental-to-zygotic transition [ 51 ], the role of synaptotagmin-3 in endocytosis and synaptic strength [ 46 ], jackson cerebrospinal fluid influx during ischemia [ 3 ]. Ciccone R et al used Tg mice and WT littermates from Taconic, as an Alzheimer disease model to study neuronal hyperactivity [ 56 ]. B de Laval et caht obtained CD Academic or national animal facilities are also suppliers.

Kessler JD et al demonstrated that Myc-dependent cancer needs SUMOylation for tumorigenesis by performing breast cancer cell line xenografts using Harlan Labs female athymic nude Foxn1-nu mice [ 73 ]. CD-1 mice Another commonly used jxckson model is the albino CD-1 mouse. The genetic variability in such outbred research animal models can be an advantage in the positional cloning of quantitative trait loci and phenotypic or genotypic selection of particular traits. However, the usage of outbred stocks like CD-1, in research fields such as toxicology safety and efficacy testingaging, and oncology have been critically assessed and may not be beneficial in many cases [ 74 ].

For example, Luther A et al conducted pharmacokinetic, toxicity, in vivo efficacy studies of candidate antibiotics in CD-1 mice jackdon 75 ]. Patzke C et al obtained primary hippocampal or astrocyte culture from newborn CD1 wild type emm from Charles River Laboratories [ 77 ].

The mutation prevents the development and maturation of both T and B cells. They share the same appearance as the normal mice. Due to the SCID mutation, the success ratio of human tumor uackson is very high even higher than nude micewhich makes them into a valuable immunodeficient animal model for testing new cancer treatments, for example [ 11 ], and as hosts for human immune system tissues. SCID mouse. From Dr. It also has a high incidence of spontaneous lung adenomas, which can easily develop in response to carcinogens.

Hauschka to create a fertile mouse line. ICR mice are characterized by docile nature, high productivity, rapid growth rate and a low incidence of spontaneous tumors [ 84 ]. ICR mice are a general-purpose model, used in particular in toxicology, neurobiology, oncology, epidemiology, infection, pharmacology, and also in product safety testing. Nagamatsu G et al ej embryonic and newborn ovaries from ICR mice to investigate the dormancy of immature oocytes in primordial follicles [ 85 ]. Luther Cyat et al tested in vivo tolerability of candidate antibiotics in ICR mice [ 75 ]. Genetically-defined and genetically-modified mice and rats are widely used in research to investigate the function of specific genes, and to serve as experimental models for different human disease.

Thousands of such strains are available, with a myriad of gene alterations, strain selections, and potential applications. Also extensively nide are mice jacjson other gene alterations, such as fluorescent reporter mouse lines [ ]. Figure 4.

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Lepr db-3J and normal mouse. Lepr db-3J mice are "obese, hyperphagic, cold intolerant, insulin resistant, and infertile".

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Courtesy of The Jackson Laboratory Variation among mouse models Differences exist among the various mouse models and it is important to be aware of this variation. ICR suffers from a severe visual impairment making cbat stock difficult to use in the Morris water maze that requires good visual perception.

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CD1 does not suffer from grossly impaired vision but, similarly to the ICR strain, CD1 mice exhibit decreased freezing in all phases of context-dependent fear conditioning [ 95 ]. In addition, ICR mice from different sources may give rise to different, even contradictory research [ 96 ]. Rats Another rodent, the rat Rattus norvegicusis the second most cited animal model used in biomedical research.

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Compared to mice, rats are bigger, generally more aggressive, and more resistant to various ailments. Sprague-Dawley and Wistar are the two most frequently used rat models. Similar to most common mouse models, these two rat strains are albino. On the other hand, both rat models are outbred stocks while the most commonly used mice are inbred strains.

Figure 5. Sprague-Dawley rat. It has a high reproductive rate and low incidence of spontaneous tumors. Its calm temperament and easy handling are welcome features to both scientists and animal ssp technicians. Most of publications Labome surveyed jzckson Sprague-Dawley rats as animal models were from Charles River, for example, [ 13 jacksn.

Sprague-Dawley rats are used extensively in neurobiological research. The pathological investigation is another area that Sprague-Dawley rats are frequently utilized. Lundby A et al injected epidermal growth factor into Sprague-Dawley rats from Cgat River to study tyrosine phosphorylation in lungs [ 97 ]. Wistar rat Wistar rat is another common hybrid albino model animal.

It has the distinct honor of being the first rat stock developed to serve as a model animal. Sprague-Dawley rats were derived from Wistar rat. Lobund-Wistar rat. More than 11, strains of mice are available from The Jackson Laboratory. It also maintains an integrated mouse information resource. Nyde distributed 3. Charles River Laboratories Charles River has been providing research animals for more than 70 years. It is a supplier of both mouse and rat models, as well as other mammalian models. In addition, it provided most CD-1 mice and rat stocks, for example, Long Evans [ ] and Wistar [ 14 ], among the publications surveyed.

Taconic Biosciences Taconic Biosciences has been providing genetically-defined rats and mice for 60 years. Harlan Laboratories Its famed breeding facility, Sprague-Dawley farm in Madison, Wisconsin, where the namesake rat strain, Sprague Dawley rat, was initially bred, is now part of Harlan. Web resources - Where to search for a specific mouse strain? For example, here are strains for mouse p53 gene.

The website is supported by an NIH grant. Reprogramming to recover youthful epigenetic information and restore vision. Enhancing mucosal immunity by transient microbiota depletion. Nat Commun. Cerebrospinal fluid influx drives acute ischemic tissue swelling. Therapeutic targeting of preleukemia cells in a mouse model of NPM1 mutant acute myeloid leukemia. An ultra-stable cytoplasmic antibody engineered for in vivo applications.

Macrophages directly contribute collagen to scar formation during zebrafish emm regeneration and mouse heart repair. Neutrophil extracellular traps target senescent vasculature for tissue remodeling in retinopathy. PIK3CA variants selectively initiate brain hyperactivity during gliomagenesis. Habenular TCF7L2 links nicotine addiction to diabetes. A central master driver of psychosocial stress responses in the rat. Frontal cortex neuron types categorically encode single decision variables.

Origins of albino and hooded rats: implications from molecular genetic analysis across modern laboratory rat strains. The Tyr albino locus of the laboratory mouse. Mamm Genome. Machine learning of toxicological big data enables read-across structure activity relationships RASAR outperforming animal test reproducibility.

Toxicol Sci. Normalizing the environment recapitulates adult human immune traits in laboratory mice. Laboratory mice born to wild mice have natural microbiota and model human immune responses. Available from: www. Immunity to commensal papillomaviruses protects against skin cancer. Brainstem nucleus incertus controls contextual memory formation. Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels.

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Germinal center dynamics revealed by multiphoton microscopy with a photoactivatable fluorescent reporter.

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