Added: Ioanna Bartel - Date: 29.11.2021 15:53 - Views: 25506 - Clicks: 5299
Improving students' relationships with teachers has important, positive and long-lasting implications for both students' academic and social development. Solely improving students' relationships with their teachers will not produce gains in achievement. However, those students who have close, positive and supportive relationships with their teachers will attain higher levels of achievement than those students with more conflict in their relationships. Picture a student who feels a strong personal connection to her teacher, talks with her teacher frequently, and receives more constructive guidance and praise rather than just criticism from her teacher.
The student is likely to trust her teacher more, show more engagement in learning, behave better in class and achieve at higher levels academically. Positive teacher-student relationships draw students into the process of learning and promote their desire to learn assuming that the content material of the class is engaging, age-appropriate and well matched to the student's skills. High quality academic instruction is deed to be appropriate to students' educational levels.
It also creates opportunity for thinking and analysis, uses feedback effectively to guide students' thinking, and extends students' prior knowledge. Teachers who foster positive relationships with their students create classroom environments more conducive to learning and meet students' developmental, emotional and academic needs.
Here are some concrete examples of closeness between a teacher and a student:. Teachers who use more learner-centered practices i. Students who attended math classrooms with higher emotional support reported increased engagement in mathematics learning. For instance, fifth graders said they were willing to exert more effort to understand the math lesson. Among kindergarteners, students reported liking school more and experiencing less loneliness if they had a close relationship with their teachers.
The quality of early teacher-student relationships has a long-lasting impact. Specifically, students who had more conflict with their teachers or showed more dependency toward their teachers in kindergarten also had lower academic achievement as reflected in mathematics and language arts grades and more behavioral problems e. In this video clip, a preschool teacher is facilitating positive peer interactions by communicating with students in a warm, calm voice and making encouraging statements, such as "Very good teamwork! Teachers who have negative relationships with a student show evidence of frustration, irritability and anger toward that student.
Teachers might display their negativity through snide and sarcastic comments toward the student or describe the feeling that they are always struggling or in conflict with a particular student. Often, teachers will describe a specific student as "one who exhausts them" or "a student who leaves them feeling drained and burned out.
Negative teacher-student relationships can amplify when teachers show irritability and anger toward several or many of the students in the classroom. In these types of classrooms, teachers may find themselves resorting to yelling and harsh punitive control. Teacher-student communications may appear sarcastic or disrespectful.
Notice the way that you give feedback to your students. If possible, watch a video of your own teaching. In this clip, a third grade teacher is monitoring and assisting her students during an independent reading activity. She kneels down next to one of her students and asks him questions to determine if he comprehends the story. The teacher positions herself in close proximity to the student and speaks to him with a calm and respectful tone of voice, which conveys the message that she is here to support him. Be sure to allow time for your students to link the concepts and skills they are learning to their own experiences.
Build fun into the things you do in your classroom. Plan activities that create a sense of community so that your students have an opportunity to see the connections between what they already know and the new things they are learning, as well as have the time to enjoy being with you and the other students. Make sure to provide social and emotional support and set high expectations for learning.
Supportive teacher-student relationships are just as important to middle and high school students as they are to elementary students. Positive relationships encourage students' motivation and engagement in learning.
Older students need to feel that their teachers respect their opinions and interests just as much as younger students do. Even in situations where adolescents do not appear to care about what teachers do or say, teacher actions and words do matter and may even have long term positive or negative consequences. Think about what you say to the difficult students in your classroom. Are you constantly bombarding your more challenging students with requests to do something?
Do you find yourself constantly asking students to stop doing what they are doing? No one likes being badgered and pestered, and your students are no exception. Difficult students require more energy on your part. For example, you may need to spend time with them individually to get to know them better — to understand their interests as well as what motivates them. This will not only allow you to tailor your instruction to their interests and motivation, but the time spent will also allow them to develop trust in you.
Persistent teacher-student conflict throughout the elementary years increases the likelihood that children will exhibit negative externalizing behaviors O'Connor et al. This video clip highlights a teacher talking about how developing positive relationships is particularly important with behaviorally difficult children. These video clips show two teachers talking about the ways positive relationships with their students helps to reach and motivate them. Three theoretical perspectives — attachment theory, social cognitive theory and self-system theory — help to explain why students behave in certain ways in your classroom and how you can use your relationships with them to enhance their learning.
Attachment theory explains how students use their positive relationships with adults to organize their experiences Bowlby Central to this theory is that students with close relationships with their teachers view their teacher as a "secure base" from which to explore the classroom environment. In practice, students with this "secure base" feel safe when making mistakes and feel more comfortable accepting the academic challenges necessary for learning. Social cognitive theory posits that students develop a wide range of skills simply by watching other people perform those skills.
Thus, modeling behavior can be a positive and effective modality for teaching Bandura, Applied to the classroom environment, teachers play a critical role as live models from which students can learn social behaviors and positive communication skills. Social cognitive theory also sheds light on the importance of feedback and encouragement from teachers in relation to student performance.
Teachers serve as role models and help regulate student behavior through interactions and relationships. This video clip shows a year-old boy describing one way his teacher is modeling behavior. Given the relationship he describes, it is easy to see the influence that this teacher has on the student. Self-System theory emphasizes the importance of students' motivation and by doing so, explains the importance of teacher-student relationships Harter, ; McCombs, Classroom practices that foster the feelings of competence, autonomy and relatedness are likely to produce the engagement and motivation required for academic learning and success.
Autonomy suggests a feeling that he or she has some choice and ability to make decisions. Relatedness implies that a student feels socially connected to teachers or peers. Positive teacher-student relationships help students meet these needs. Teachers offer feedback to students Looking for long relation support their feelings of competence. Teachers who know their students' interests and preferences, and show regard and respect for these individual differences, bolster students' feelings of autonomy. Teachers who establish a personal and caring relationship and foster positive social interactions within their classrooms meet their students' needs for relatedness or social connection to school.
Taken together, effective teacher-student relationships confirm to students that teachers care for them and support their academic efforts. Teacher-student relationships contribute to students' resiliency. Often, we assume that hard-to-change factors such as class size, teacher experience or availability of instructional supplies are crucial for predicting student achievement.
In fact, these factors are not as important as having positive relationships. In another study, urban high school students with behavior and emotional problems were ased to an intervention involving weekly interactions with teachers, monthly calls to the students at home and increased praise from adults. Studies like this point to an important message — across ages and in all content areas, students will be more engaged and motivated if teachers meet students' essential need for social connection.
The behaviors and emotions that young children display when interacting with peers play a critical role in their involvement with bullying throughout the school years. Through teacher-student relationship, teachers can assist students in understanding how to better understand and regulate emotions they are feeling. Teachers can also involve students in discussing alternative strategies to deal with social conflict and in establishing prosocial rules for the classroom Allen, ; Fraser et al.
From early childhood through adolescence, positive teacher-student relationships appear to complement the other important relationships in students' lives. This video clip is of a teacher talking about the complementary role that her relationship with the child and the family plays in managing 's behavior in the classroom. Multiple factors determine teacher-student relationships: teacher characteristics and student characteristics each play an important role in predicting the quality of interactions that teachers have with individual students. Although less well-studied, other factors school social climate, school policies, etc.
Yes, positive teacher-student relationships can promote improved peer relationships in your classrooms through direct and indirect approaches. Teachers can directly promote positive social behaviors by orchestrating the relationships within a classroom in a positive manner Battistich et al. Teachers can use positive teacher-student relationships indirectly to promote peer relationships as well. Students tend to be more accepting of peers who show engagement in the tasks of school e. Some situations such as in elementary school, where each teacher is ased only twenty or so students provide more opportunities for the development of close teacher-student relationships.
The quality of teacher-student relationships is surprisingly stable over time. In other words, if a kindergarten teacher has a conflictual relationship with a student; it is likely that the child's first and second grade teachers will also experience conflict in their relationship with that same. Most likely, the stability stems from the "internal working model" that students create in their mind about how relationships with adults typically ought to work.
Here is a video clip of a year-old boy talking about a high school teacher. The teen talks about a teaching method that complements his learning style and motivates him to ask questions. The teacher allows students to question his thinking, a type of questioning that fosters learning, as the student describes. The quality of this give-and-take between the teacher and students provides one example of a teacher-student interaction that appeals to adolescents and enhances the teacher-student relationship. Ideally, classroom environments need to be nurturing while at the same time holding students to high academic standards Curby, LoCasale-Crouch, et al.
Students' social and emotional needs are present throughout the day and the year, regardless of the subject area. In the past decade, there has been increased interest in methods to support students' development of self-control. Executive functioning is one component of self-control that refers to students' working memory, ability to direct attention, and the ability to control their responses in different situations.
Through their relationships and interactions with students, teachers can help to develop and improve students' executive functioning skills and the behaviors that emerge because of those skills. Additionally, students with low effortful control perform similarly to children with high effortful control i. Teacher-student relationships help students develop executive functioning skills regardless of whether they are low or high in these skills in the beginning of the school year.
See Willingham,for more useful information. This video clip provides an example of how a teacher's supportive interactions with an eight year old boy helps him get back on track and show more self-control in his behaviors. Several common and readily available instruments have been developed to assess teacher-student relationships. Although used primarily for research, these instruments can also serve as diagnostic tools to identify strengths and weakness in your own teaching. Some of these instruments rely on teacher reports of relationships, others are observationally-based measures of teacher-student interactions in the classroom, and yet others rely on students' reports of their relationships with teachers.
One particularly innovative technique to use with young children relies on children's drawings of their teachers. Through this process, it is important to realize that even the best teachers have difficulties with a few students from time to time. The reasons for these difficulties are numerous and getting help from a collaborating teacher, the school psychologist, or a supportive administrator may offer you an outside view of what is occurring and help you improve your relationships with the challenging students in your classroom.
No, positive teacher-student relationships are only one part of a teachers' repertoire of classroom management and discipline strategies. High quality relationships complement high quality classroom management. Furthermore, it is not possible to develop positive relationships with every student. As a teacher, you can strive toward accomplishing that goal but realize that having an ideal relationship with each student may be unobtainable.
Improving teacher-student relationships constitutes only a first step toward creating a classroom community that is conducive to student's social and academic development. Teachers vary in their ability to create positive teacher-student relationships. Some teachers simply have an easier time developing positive relationships with students — personality, feelings toward students, their own relationship histories may all play a role. A few personal characteristics of teachers have been identified as important predictors of positive teacher-student relationships in elementary schools.
Research has found that preschool and kindergarten teachers are more likely to develop close relationships with students who share their same ethnic background. In contrast, it was found that Caucasian pre-service teachers working in their week field placement sites perceived African-American and Hispanic students as more dependent than these same teachers perceived White students.
Asian-American and Hispanic pre-service teachers perceived African-American students as more dependent upon them as compared to Asian-American or Hispanic students Kesner, Pre-service teachers who recall their own upbringing as caring and nurturing Looking for long relation also more likely to experience closeness with the students in their field placement classrooms Kesner, Teachers' beliefs and the types of practices that teachers prefer also appear to be important.Looking for long relation
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Improving Students' Relationships with Teachers to Provide Essential Supports for Learning