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Female escorts represent an occupational group that charges a fee for sex, which can be regarded as an extreme form of short-term mating. The present study examined if the fees charged by escorts are related to traits typically associated with female short-term mate value. A total of 2, advertisements for female escorts offering sexual services in the United States were examined, as a customized software program was used to download all the advertisements from an online escort directory.
The advertisement content was coded, and relationships between advertised physical characteristics and the hourly rate charged by female escorts were examined. The analyses showed that higher fees were associated with female escorts who advertised a waist-to-hip ratio near 0. The findings provide evidence that evolutionarily relevant traits associated with female short-term mate value are systematically related to fees charged for sexual services. In these escort service websites, women often post pictures of themselves, describe the services they offer, describe their physical attributes, and indicate the amount they charge for services.
An analysis of the information provided in escort advertisements Lady seeking sex tonight Center Hill allow a unique means of exploring short-term mating preferences. Female prostitution can be viewed as a form of short-term sexual strategy Buss,where men gain immediate, opportunistic copulations without commitment in exchange for immediate allocation of financial resources to women.
As prostitution is a sexual relationship, one would expect that any evolved mate preference variables seen in other short-term mate selection contexts would also be present in the context of prostitution. Prostitutes who have traits that are highly valued by most men should be able to command the highest prices in this sexual marketplace. Escort services and qualities highly sought after by male clientele should be more prevalent in online escort and should command higher prices.
Specifically, men are attracted to sexually dimorphic and age-related traits that serve as honest indicators of fertility and reproductive value. There are characteristics that men prefer when seeking a short-term mating partner. Men consider females who display a 0. When viewing back-posed women, men initially fixate on the waist and hips within ms and then dwell there longer than any other region of the body.
Furthermore, men rated images with a WHR of 0. The desirability of a 0. Within Western cultures, the idealized body weight has declined over time, although the most favored WHR has remained stable Singh, There is some cultural variability in WHR preferences, but in the cultures that have been studied, men preferred female figures with WHRs lower than the local average of their cultural female conspecifics Sugiyama, Singhargued that a WHR around 0.
Thus, WHR may be attractive to men because it als both fertility and perhaps also because it serves as a cue to sexual accessibility. Additionally, lower BMI is a good indicator of fecundity and youthfulness, even more so than WHR, although the two factors are highly interdependent Furnham et al. As BMI moved into underweight and overweight ranges, ratings of attractiveness declined markedly. In these cultures, higher BMI may be associated with fertility. It should be noted, however, that in cultures such as the Shiwiar where men prefer women with higher BMIs, even the heaviest women in those cultures have less body fat than the typical female college student Sugiyama, So it seems that preferred BMI depends on cultural variables, although normal BMI seems to be preferred over under and overweight.
Age is another ificant trait associated with female attractiveness. Female reproductive value declines with age and fertility peaks during early adulthood, so it is not surprising that males seem to possess an evolved preference for young, nubile females Buss,Symons, Men tend to be most attracted to women between the ages of 20 and 25 years presumably because that is when fertility peaks in female humans. This window of peak fertility is especially preferred by males for short-term mating, as it maximizes the probability of a brief sexual affair resulting in offspring.
Females with younger looking faces were perceived by males to be more attractive, healthy, and fecund than females with older looking faces. The effect of age on male perception of these characteristics was even greater than WHR.
The tendency for men to prefer younger women is consistent across cultures, both in the preferred age of mates and in the actual age of spouses Buss, The morphological appearance of female breasts may serve as a cue to age and fertility and is associated with perception of attractiveness Marlowe, ; Symons, Firm, high breasts are associated with nubility and youth, whereas drooping or sagging breasts are associated with increased age presumably declining residual reproductive value. In mating domains, men desire attractive women, and what is perceived to be attractive are a set of female traits and characteristics that indicate fertility and reproductive value Symons, Men seek women that have characteristics associated with fecundity and youth Buss, Escorts may provide a way for some men to access sexually available women with minimal investment and commitment.
Female escorts, by virtue of their work, provide sexual access to many partners. Escorts who advertise online offer brief sexual encounters for a posted fee. Clients know exactly how much of their resources they must invest in exchange for sex, with no further commitment expected from either side. Males possess evolved sexual selection mechanisms that may be evident in their preferences for online escorts.
Several studies have examined the content of escort advertisements. In this same study, ages of online escorts tended to be 18—29 years, and escorts often advertised their physical characteristics which included body measurements. Milrod and Monto examined a different perspective of the escort—client dyad by focusing on the motives and behaviors of male patrons that paid for online escorts. They reported that the most common behavior was penile—vaginal coitus with a condom.
In addition, the top three reasons for seeking an escort were to be with a woman who really likes sex, to be with a woman who is very uninhibited, and to have a variety of sexual partners. Based on the findings, it was clear that men were interested in having sex with many uninhibited women who like to have sex.
Pruitt and Krull found that aspects of physical appearance were the most frequent theme in online escort advertisements, although their study was largely descriptive in nature. The current study sought to determine whether traits typically associated with short-term mate attractiveness are related to the price female escorts charge for their services. Because female escorts are in the business of short-term mating for profit, it may be the case that those with more desirable traits can command higher prices for their services.
Attractive women realize that they are attractive to men, and they demand higher quality mates or they demand more investment from mates. We hypothesized that the amount charged by escorts would be correlated with several traits associated with female short-term mate attractiveness: WHR, BMI, weight, and age. We also predicted that escorts who provided recognizable facial shots and nude photographs in their advertisements would charge a higher rate because the photographs might represent an honest advertisement of their physical attractiveness, whereas those not displaying nudity might be concealing unappealing features.
Lastly, a model will be developed based upon the ificant bivariate relationships to examine which combination of variables best predict female escort fees. This site was chosen because of the large of advertisements and the consistent and well-formed structure of the data i. A total of 3, female escort advertisements were collected for this study.
After controlling for duplicates, the final sample of escort advertisements was 2, These duplicates were a result of the website allowing escorts to advertise in different states and cities which created multiple advertisements for those escorts. The escorts were all females offering services in the United States with ages ranging from 18 to 70, with a median age of Participants were predominately in the age range of 18 to 29 Participants were predominantly Caucasian A custom data processing program was used to extract name, gender, age, hair color, eye color, height, bust, weight, waist, hip, and ethnicity, contact information, along with all textual information of the advertisement, which may or may not have included price.
Absolute differences from 0. Weight was provided in pounds. BMI was computed by dividing weight in pounds by height in inches squared and multiplying by a conversion factor ofwhich is the standard conversion factor i. Age was given in years. Two different fees were extracted from the data corresponding to in-call and out-call prices.
These fees were converted into a standard unit of U. In-call and out-call services differ in price. Additionally, contact information i. The website used a content management system CMS to display information on each escort, which allowed the use of automated data capture techniques. Because of the dynamic nature of the website, a snapshot was taken on June 4, which took 4 hr to download using a customized program developed specifically for this purpose. The dynamic nature of the website changes daily, thus manual coding of the advertisements would have to be done one at a time which would have taken a much longer time to collect.
The captured data were then processed over the course of several weeks with no loss of coherency and no possibility of data entry errors. The CMS used by the website presented several attributes in a standard format for each escort. Most of the information was presented to users of the website in a table. The contact information was sorted and used to identify duplicates from the data set.
When duplicates were found, one of the advertisements was randomly selected and the other ones deleted. This resulted in the deletion of Escort fee data could not be automatically extracted from the website information using the customized software, so three researchers manually coded the hourly in-call and out-call rates. Two researchers independently coded the hourly fee for each advertisement and the third researcher was used as a tiebreaker when there were disagreements. The hourly rates were based on the fee of the first hour of escort services.
Multiple researchers were needed to translate fees because some escort profiles listed fees without a unit i. For escorts with a multihour minimum or different rates for varying locations, an average hourly fee was calculated. A custom price coding application was used that randomly presented the text of the advertisement and allowed the coders to enter the hourly rates for in-calls and out-calls, if a fee was found in the advertisement.
Thus, each of the measures related to photos were dichotomous. Lineup identity was defined as being able to recognize and identify the escort i. Because some advertisements did not show a facial picture or the face was sometimes blurred or censored in some manner e. This identity selection was based on being able to as identity and feature recognition e.
The breast exposure parameter was defined as an exposed nipple or areola, including instances when attributes were visible through semi-transparent clothing. The third parameter was buttocks exposure, defined as both buttocks exposed with no underwear being worn or underwear pulled down at least below the buttocks. All disagreements were resolved by the third rater.
Descriptive statistics were first examined across the sample for the continuous measures see Table 1. As can be seen across all measures, there was considerable variability.
The out-call rate was U. For the photograph codings, the percentage of advertisements that provided photographs that displayed an identifiable face, naked breast, or naked buttocks were The data were subjected to bivariate Pearson and point-biserial correlations.
The variables entered into the correlation matrix were in-call and out-call rates, along with WHR, weight, BMI, age, lineup identification, breast nudity, and buttocks nudity see Table 2. As can be seen from the correlation matrix, similar patterns emerged for both in-call and out-call fees. Specifically, higher fees were associated with advertisements that indicated a WHR closer to 0.
Table 2. Two step-wise regression models were built using the ificant predictors for each type of service i. For the in-call model, six variables were entered into the model.
The yielded a model with three ificant predictors. The ificant predictors were BMI, weight, and age, which ed for The of the final model can be seen in Table 3. A similar analysis was used for out-call fees in which the six variables entered into the equation yielded a model with five ificant predictors. The ificant predictors were BMI, age, weight, WHR, and a photograph depicting breast nudity which ed for The of the final model can be seen in Table 4.
It should be noted that weight and BMI were highly correlated, thus it was of concern that multicollinearity may be an issue within the regression models because both used weight and BMI as predictors and both were found to be ificant. The variance inflation factor VIF for each predictor was reported in Tables 3 and 4. Interpreting VIF values vary to some degree, but several researchers have indicated that VIF values exceeding a value of 10 is cause for concern and values less than 10 tend to be interpreted as inconsequential collinearity e.
Based on those recommendations, multicollinearity was not considered to be of concern to merit alternative procedures. The present study breaks new ground by examining factors related to the economics and marketing of sex workers. The present findings suggest that WHR, weight, BMI, age, and displays of nudity are related to the rates charged by escorts in online advertisements. Women marketing these characteristics in a desirable manner tend to charge higher rates for sexual services. This is consistent with other studies that have shown that males are attracted to a WHR near 0.
Although the premise of a 0.Lady seeking sex tonight Center Hill
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Online Female Escort Advertisements: The Cost of Sex